Tag Archives: exercise technique

Why Extreme Conditioning Programs Are Wrong for Athletes

26 Feb

Extreme Conditioning Programs (ECPs) like P90X, Insanity, and CrossFit have become very popular with fitness enthusiasts.  And while these programs may be appropriate for some — within reason, just about any exercise is better than none — they are clearly not the right choice for everyone.

Athletic performance training should not necessarily be a time-constrained, physical challenge.  There is no scientific rationale for the “as many as you can, as fast as you can” approach.  And since injury prevention should be an important consideration in the development of any performance training plan, programs that encourage quantity over quality should be carefully scrutinized.

Research shows that full muscular activation can be achieved well before the point of total exhaustion or fatigue.  Simply stated, when an athlete’s form begins to “break down,” during the course of any given exercise, it’s time to put the weight down.  When athletes become fatigued and technique gets sloppy, exercise range-of-motion becomes compromised and the chance of injury increases.

Scientifically speaking, the development of sport-specific strength and power — and the activation of fast-twitch muscle fibers — involves performing exercises using heavy loads, through a narrow range of repetitions, with technical correctness (full range-of-motion), and adequate time for recovery between sets.

Here’s an article from Tony Duckwall, athletic performance director for KIVA volleyball and IFHCK field hockey and co-owner and sports performance director for Louisville-based EDGE Sports Performance.  Tony discusses 5 Reasons Young Athletes Shouldn’t Use Standardized Programs Like P90X, Insanity and CrossFit.

Another article, this one from STACK Media Associate Editor, Sam DeHority, provides insight into Why Athletes Shouldn’t Just Jump into CrossFit.

Here’s the deal: If you want to try CrossFit, or some other ECP, give it a try.  But first do a little research, understand what you’re getting yourself into, and make sure that whatever you do is aligned with your strength and/or fitness goals.

Get STRONGER, Get FASTER!

Your thoughts?

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The Problem with High School Strength and Conditioning Programs

25 Aug

I am blessed with the opportunity to work with several area high school sports programs as a Strength & Conditioning coach/consultant, in the areas of program design, instruction, and supervision.  I have also observed dozens of area high school Strength & Conditioning programs.

Outside of the high school weight room, I train scores of student-athletes, at my facility, who are “products” of their high school Strength & Conditioning programs.  Unfortunately, most of what I observe is subpar – “under-strong” kids (given their size, age, and training experience), poor technique, and lack of appropriate supervision and direction.

Based on my experience and observation – and discussions with hundreds of high school athletes, parents, and coaches – here are some of the problems with high school Strength & Conditioning programs:

Lack of Knowledge

Strength & Conditioning is not rocket science, but it is (or should be) exercise science and training should be evidence-based.  A background that includes foundational exercise science and practical application/exercise technique should be a requirement.

Lack of Credentials/Qualifications

Most of the folks working with our high school athletes, in the area of Strength & Conditioning, do not have the experience or expertise required for the job.  Qualified individuals should have an educational background that includes exercise science; and certification, such as Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), from a nationally/internationally accredited organization like the National Strength & Conditioning Association (NSCA).

Inadequate Program Design/Management

Designing and managing a high school Strength & Conditioning program requires more than YouTube, Google, and other programs’ training templates.  There are several factors – including energy systems, demands and movement patterns of the sport, etc. that must be taken into consideration.  I know of a program that chose athletes’ exercise loads based on their ages.

Inefficient Time Management

Too little work and too much rest.  Lots of standing around watching, waiting, and socializing.

Inadequate Supervision/Instruction

Ratio of trainers to athletes is way too low, especially for sports with big numbers, like football.  Last year, I was in a high school weight room working with the girls basketball team (about a dozen players), and the freshman football team was also training – 40 kids, one coach (who spent the entire session sitting at a desk reading the newspaper).  I think I spent more time instructing, demonstrating, and correcting the football players than I did working with girls basketball players.

One Size Fits All

This one, admittedly, is a challenge, but it’s possible to develop an appropriate and productive program for all the sports programs at a school.  I’ve known of programs who use stuff like P90X or Insanity to get everyone doing the same thing at the same time.  This would be a great strategy if the high school football team consisted of adult men and women trying to improve their level of fitness.

Lack of Proper Warmup

Very little time spent doing programmed, dynamic (movement-based) warmup exercises.  Too many programs still warming up by stretching, and even doing very little of that.

Inadequate Periodization

Very few programs take into account training phases (off-season, pre-season, in-season) and, if they do, their training plans rarely address the needs (and challenges) of these phases.  Many programs have no plan whatsoever for the in-season (maintenance) phase.

No Real Plan for Progression

Most programs don’t have a good plan for making their programs progressive (increasing intensity) because they don’t understand the rules and guidelines that govern this process.  The NSCA has a “2 + 2” rule that is physiologically appropriate and can simplify the process.

Poor Understanding of Energy System Training

The energy system demands of the sport must be taken in to consideration when designing a Strength & Conditioning program.  Power sports require programming that incorporates short bursts of high-intensity activity, while endurance sports programs have different needs.  I know of several area basketball and volleyball programs whose cardio-metabolic training and fitness testing consists of a mile run.  Think about the demands and movement patterns of those two sports (especially volleyball) and let that sink in for a moment…

Inappropriate Exercise Selection

I’m not sure how some of these programs choose their athletes’ exercises.  Most of these programs pay little attention to areas like joint stability, landing mechanics, and overall injury prevention.  Focus on opposing muscle groups is often overlooked (for example, many programs love exercises like squats and leg presses, but pay little attention to posterior chain – glute/hamstring – development).

Poor Technique

Unfortunately, you have to know and understand (and be able to instruct, demonstrate, and correct) proper technique to be able to appropriately coach it.  I train lots of athletes who come to me with poor exercise technique (arching the back on the bench press, poor squatting mechanics, etc.) – which can be dangerous – who tell me their form is taught and encouraged by their coaches.

Poor Nutrition Education and Monitoring

Strength & Conditioning and nutrition should be connected.  Sports nutrition should be taught and viewed as something that complements and enhances the athletes’ training.

Adversarial Relationship

This is one of the most troubling aspects, for me.  It’s almost as if the coaches don’t – or refuse to – acknowledge that we are on the same “team.”  Our goal – to create a better student-athlete – should be aligned.  It’s disappointing to me when coaches disparage my training and discourage their athletes from participating in it.  Sadly, I think control plays a large part in this situation.  Communication and collaboration can improve this process.

Get STRONGER, Get FASTER!

Your thoughts?

Sport Coaches Are Not Necessarily Strength Coaches

8 Apr

Columbia-High-School-coach-Phil-McCrary[1]One of the things I really enjoy about my job is the opportunity to travel to high schools, colleges, clubs, and other organizations to work with coaches and student-athletes in their athletic facilities and weight rooms.  Typically, my work involves the creation, design, and development of strength training programs, including explanation and demonstration of exercise selection and technique.  We also discuss pre- and post-workout nutrition, supplements, and a variety of other pertinent topics.  And, although the coaches I work with are very good at what they do, one thing has become clear: Sport coaches are not necessarily equipped or prepared to effectively function as strength and conditioning professionals (note to coaches: don’t take it personally; strength trainers aren’t necessarily sport coaches, either).

Here are some examples of what I’ve observed:

Inability to effectively manage big numbers.  This is especially prevalent among football programs.  I’ve seen coaches implement group aerobics and calisthenics, P90X, and other programs without any rationale (except for the fact that these programs make it easier to manage big numbers because they’re “one size fits all”).

Inadequate — little or no — qualified supervision.  Athlete to coach ratio is typically very high (sometimes the kids are supervising themselves!).

Poor program design and exercise selection.  No needs analysis or thought given to personnel, equipment, time, and/or resources.

Most of the coaches and athletes with whom I’ve worked are less than proficient at teaching and performing exercise technique (especially the Olympic lifts; some of what I’ve seen pass for proper form on even the most basic exercises is scary), and are unsure/unaware of appropriate selection of loads, repetitions, sets, etc.

I know of several programs whose workouts have come directly from internet searches, Men’s Health videos, and You Tube, without any consideration given to evidence-based strength and conditioning.  “Everyone does it,” “I heard about it from another coach,” or “I learned/observed it at a clinic or conference” do not constitute good reasons for implementing something into your program.

Coaches, you were hired by someone who felt that your experience and expertise were the best fit for building a program.  No one expects that your experience and expertise are all-encompassing (certainly you have assistant coaches to whom you delegate some of the coaching responsibilities).  You can improve the overall quality of your program by enlisting the direction and guidance of a certified strength and conditioning professional — there are lots of qualified individuals out there.  X’s and O’s, strategy and tactics, and sport-specific skill development are crucial to the success of any team or program.  Strength and speed are “difference makers,” and also important to the development and success of your program.  Let us help you, your staff, and your athletes.

Get STRONGER, Get FASTER!

Your thoughts?

Starting a High School Strength Program

29 Jul

team-weight-room-640[1]At our facility, we work with a few hundred high school student-athletes, and serve as advisor/coach/consultant to several high school strength and conditioning programs.

In terms of quality, high school strength and conditioning programs vary considerably, and most of them are subpar.  The biggest reason for this is that most of these programs lack adequate and appropriate program design and supervision, and allow little or no involvement from qualified, experienced strength and conditioning professionals.

To make matters worse, most high school strength and conditioning programs are run by coaches, most of whom are not qualified as strength and conditioning professionals.  Many of these coaches are hell-bent on control and loathe to take advice or guidance from “outsiders.”

The net result is that most high school strength and conditioning programs are run by individuals who lack even a basic understanding of foundational exercise science and it’s practical application.  Unfortunately, many of these programs are less than effective and — worse yet — can be unsafe for student-athletes.

My advice to high school sports coaches:  GET SOME HELP.  Check your ego, loosen your grip on your program, and consult with a qualified and experienced strength and conditioning professional.  Trust me — it will be time and money well-spent.

Mike Boyle wrote this article for the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) Strength and Conditioning Journal over a decade ago, but it’s still just as relevant today.

Starting a High School Strength Program

Frequently at clinics, I speak with high school coaches who are interested in starting or improving a strength and conditioning program at their school. Most often they are looking for guidance in setting up the program and always want to talk sets and reps. Much to their dismay, I generally want to discuss organizational and administrative concepts because, in my experience, these are the real keys. Setup and execution make the program run — not sets and reps.

If you get one thing out of this article remember this quote:  “A bad program done well is better than a good program done poorly.” – Author Unknown

Keep it simple, and adhere strictly to the following guidelines:

  1. Forget uncooperative seniors.  The source of most frustration in starting a high school program is dealing with seniors who already “know how to lift.” Separate these guys out right away. If they don’t cooperate, get rid of them. They’ll be gone soon anyway.
  2. Do one coaching-intensive lift per day. What do I mean by coaching-intensive lift? Exercises like squats or any Olympic movement are coaching-intensive. Coaches must watch every possible set to correctly ingrain the correct motor pattern. If athletes are front squatting and hang cleaning the same day, which do you watch, the platforms or the squats racks? Don’t force yourself to make this decision. For example do lunges instead of squats on the day that you clean and do pushups instead of bench press on the day you squat. On squat day, don’t do an Olympic movement, do Box Jumps as your explosive exercise. This process of one coaching-intensive lift per day may only last a year, but you will not be getting poor patterns practiced with no supervision.
  3. Get all administration done prior to the start of sessions. The biggest failure in strength and conditioning is coaches sitting at computers instead of coaching. If you need workouts done on computer, do them during a free period. The job is strength and conditioning coach. Don’t get caught up, as many coaches do, in having great programs on paper and lousy lifters. Let the paper suffer and do the coaching.
  4. Coach. This is what it is all about. Coach like this is your sport. So many coaches ask, “Can you give me a program?” We could but it wouldn’t work. College or pro programs are not appropriate for high school beginners. They need teaching, not programs. The program begins and ends with technical proficiency. Coaches must realize that their athletes are the window through which others see them. If a college coach came into your weight room would you be proud or ashamed? Would you make excuses for the poor technique or, accept the pats on the back for what great lifters your players are? The other factor, even more important than your athletes being the window through which others see you, is that your athletes are the mirror in which you see yourself. Your lifters are a direct reflection of you. When you watch your athletes are you happy with yourself as a teacher and coach.
  5. Technique, Technique, Technique. Never compromise. Perform parallel squats all the time. Our athletes do nothing but front squats to a top of the thigh parallel position. If you bench press, no bounce, no arch. Never compromise. As soon as you allow one athlete to cheat or to not adhere to the program others will follow immediately. Remember why athletes cheat. They cheat to lift more weight. Lifting more weight feeds their ego. If you allow it to happen, cheating is very difficult to stop. To make your point use exercises like Pause Bench and Pause Front Squats. These exercises can be very humbling. Canadian Strength Coach Charles Poliquin has a principle he calls Technical Failure. This means that you never count a rep that was completed after technique broke down.
  6. Use body weight when possible. Always teach bodyweight squats first. If they can’t bodyweight squat, they can’t squat. Do lots of pushups, feet elevated pushups, 1 leg squats, chinups and dips. Bodyweight is humbling. Use it wisely and often with high school kids.
  7. If you test, test super strict. Testing is when things really deteriorate. In testing the coach should see every lift, and the coach should select every weight. Don’t reward strength. This is a huge mistake that I believe encourages drug use. Reward improvement, make athletes compete with themselves, not others. No t-shirts for rewards unless they reward improvement over personal bests. Also if you test strength, also test performance factors like Vertical Jump and 10-yd. Dash. If athletes are improving strength without changing performance factors, the program is only marginally effective.
  8. Have appropriate equipment. This is critical to a good high school program. Spend money to encourage success. Success is what sells the program. Strength and conditioning coaching is easy in principle, but difficult in practice. The key is to try to see every set and coach every athlete. This is difficult, time consuming, and repetitive. At the end of a good day you should be hoarse and tired. A good strength coach will have sore legs and knees from squatting down to see squat depth all day.

Get STRONGER, Get FASTER!

Your thoughts?

Why Extreme Conditioning Programs Are Wrong for Athletes

13 Jun

CrossFit-204-Girl-Interrupted-start[1]Extreme Conditioning Programs (ECPs) like P90X, Insanity, and CrossFit have become very popular with fitness enthusiasts.  And while these programs may be appropriate for some — within reason, just about any exercise is better than none — they are clearly not the right choice for everyone.

Athletic performance training should not necessarily be a time-constrained, physical challenge.  There is no scientific rationale for the “as many as you can, as fast as you can” approach.  And since injury prevention should be an important consideration in the development of any performance training plan, programs that encourage quantity over quality should be carefully scrutinized.

Research shows that full muscular activation can be achieved well before the point of total exhaustion or fatigue.  Simply stated, when an athlete’s form begins to “break down,” during the course of any given exercise, it’s time to put the weight down.  When athletes become fatigued and technique gets sloppy, exercise range-of-motion becomes compromised and the chance of injury increases.

Scientifically speaking, the development of sport-specific strength and power — and the activation of fast-twitch muscle fibers — involves performing exercises using heavy loads, through a narrow range of repetitions, with technical correctness (full range-of-motion), and adequate time for recovery between sets.

Here’s an article from Tony Duckwall, athletic performance director for KIVA volleyball and IFHCK field hockey and co-owner and sports performance director for Louisville-based EDGE Sports Performance.  Tony discusses 5 Reasons Young Athletes Shouldn’t Use Standardized Programs Like P90X, Insanity and CrossFit.

Another article, this one from STACK Media Associate Editor, Sam DeHority, provides insight into Why Athletes Shouldn’t Just Jump into CrossFit.

Here’s the deal: If you want to try CrossFit, or some other ECP, give it a try.  But first do a little research, understand what you’re getting yourself into, and make sure that whatever you do is aligned with your strength and/or fitness goals.

Get STRONGER, Get FASTER!

Your thoughts?

Sport Coaches Are Not Necessarily Strength Coaches

15 Mar

Columbia-High-School-coach-Phil-McCrary[1]One of the things I really enjoy about my job is the opportunity to travel to high schools, colleges, and universities and work with coaches and student-athletes in their weight rooms.  Typically, my work involves the creation, design, and development of strength training programs, including explanation and demonstration of exercise selection and technique.  We also discuss pre- and post-workout nutrition, supplements, and a variety of other pertinent topics.  And although the coaches I work with are very good at what they do, one thing has become clear: Sport coaches are not necessarily equipped or prepared to effectively function as strength and conditioning professionals (note to coaches: don’t take it personally; strength trainers aren’t necessarily sport coaches, either).

Here are some examples of what I’ve observed:

Inability to effectively manage big numbers.  This is especially prevalent among football programs.  I’ve seen coaches implement group aerobics and calisthenics, P90X, and other programs without any rationale (except for the fact that these programs make it easier to manage big numbers because they’re “one size fits all”).

Inadequate — little or no — qualified supervision.  Athlete to coach ratio is typically very high (sometimes the kids are supervising themselves!).

Poor program design and exercise selection.  No needs analysis or thought given to personnel, equipment, time, and/or resources.

Most of the coaches and athletes with whom I’ve worked are less than proficient at teaching and performing exercise technique (especially the Olympic lifts; some of what I’ve seen pass for proper form on even the most basic exercises is scary), and are unsure/unaware of appropriate selection of loads, repetitions, sets, etc.

I know of several programs whose workouts have come directly from internet searches and You Tube, without any consideration given to evidence-based strength and conditioning.  “Everyone does it,” “I heard about it from another coach,” or “I learned/observed it at a clinic or conference” do not constitute good reasons for implementing something into your program.

Coaches, you were hired by someone who felt that your experience and expertise were the best fit for building a program.  No one expects that your experience and expertise are all-encompassing (certainly you have assistant coaches to whom you delegate some of the coaching responsibilities).  You can improve the overall quality of your program by enlisting the direction and guidance of a strength and conditioning professional — there are lots of qualified individuals out there.  X’s and O’s, strategy and tactics, and sport-specific skill development are crucial to the success of any team or program.  Strength and speed are “difference makers,” and also important.  Let us help you, your staff, and your athletes.

Get STRONGER, Get FASTER!

Your thoughts?

What is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS)

2 Aug

 What is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS)?

The Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) is an individual who has attained certification and accreditation through the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA); at least a bachelor’s degree, from an accredited college or university; and certification in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and in the use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED).

The CSCS has studied, completed extensive coursework, and been tested and certified by the NSCA, in the following areas:

Concepts and Applications of Exercise Sciences

  • Muscle Physiology
  • Neuromuscular Anatomy and Adaptations to Conditioning
  • The Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise
  • Bone, Muscle, and Connective Tissue Adaptations to Physical Activity
  • Bioenergetics of Exercise and Training
  • Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise
  • Cardiovascular and Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology: Responses to Exercise
  • Physiological Adaptations to Anaerobic and Aerobic Endurance Training Programs
  • Age- and Sex-Related Differences and Their Implications for Resistance Exercise
  • The Psychology of Athletic Preparation and Performance: The Mental Management of Physical Resources
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances: Effects, Risks, and Appropriate Alternatives
  • Nutritional Factors in Health and Performance
  • Eating Disorders and Obesity

Testing and Evaluation

  • Principles of Test Selection and Administration
  • Administration , Scoring, and Interpretation of Selected Tests

Exercise Techniques

  • Stretching and Warm-Up
  • Resistance Training and Spotting Techniques

Program Design

  • Anaerobic Exercise Prescription
    • Resistance Training
    • Plyometric Training
    • Speed, Agility, and Speed-Endurance Training
  • Aerobic Endurance Exercise Prescription
    • Aerobic Endurance Exercise Training
  • Applying Exercise Prescription Principles
    • Training Variation: Periodization
    • Rehabilitation and Reconditioning

Organization and Administration of the Strength Training and Conditioning Facility

  • Facility Layout and Scheduling
  • Developing a Policies and Procedures Manual
  • Facility Maintenance and Risk Management
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